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You must cite any direct quotation, summary, or paraphrase of any idea or fact from your research. Citing sources is giving credit to the original author and publication where you found the information. Not citing sources is plagiarism and you may be subject to academic discipline.
By referencing the work of scholars and other professionals, you demonstrate that your own research is based on solid, reliable information and that you are capable of critical thinking by being able to synthesize that research into your own.
By citing sources, you provide the information readers of your paper need in order to locate the same sources that you did.
Part of your research is built upon the research of other people. In the scholarship tradition in the United States, it is considered respectful and fair to give them credit for their hard work (just as you might hope someone would give you credit if they were quoting your own work!)
Personal communications, because they are difficult to recover, are not listed in bibliographies and works cited pages; instead, they are cited in-text only, for example:
(J. Binnie., personal communication, March 28, 2008)
You are required to cite images that you insert into essays and visual presentations.
Note: For artificial intelligence-created images, see: Images Generated by an AI Tool
In the body of the essay or in a visual presentation:
More Farmers in Peru Have Stopped Planting Coca, Opting for Cacao and Coffee
Note. From Peruvian Prosperity: From Coca Farmer to Chocolate Maker, by N. Guitierrez, 2016, USAID (https://www.usaid.gov/results-data/success-stories/coca-farmer-chocolate-maker). Copyright 2016 by USAID.
USAID. (2016, September). Peruvian prosperity: From coca farmer to chocolate maker. https://www.usaid.gov/results-data/success-stories/coca-farmer-chocolate-maker
If you refer to information from an image, chart, table or graph, but do not insert it in your essay or presentation, create a citation both in-text and on your Reference list.
If the information is part of another format, for example a book, magazine article, encyclopedia, etc., cite the work it came from.
If you are only making a passing reference to a well known image, you would not have to cite it, e.g. describing someone as having a Mona Lisa smile.
1. FIRST, using any of the tools on this Create APA Citations tab, create a citation for the source below:
2. NEXT, write your citation on a piece of paper OR type/paste your citation into an electronic document
Characterized by repetitive motor movements or sounds such as hand-slapping and finger-flipping, “stimming,” short for self-stimulating behaviors, has historically been used as a diagnostic finding in autism.
4. FINALLY, create an in-text citation for the direct quote above and write or type/paste the in-text citation at the end of the quote
Practice creating a citation and in-text citation by answering the questions below. How?
Addressing Sex in Occupational Therapy: A Coconstructed Autoethnography. Rose, Natalie; Hughes, Claire. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy; Bethesda Vol. 72, Iss. 3, (May/Jun 2018): 1-6. DOI:10.5014/ajot.2018.026005
Sexuality affects many areas of people's lives, including their safety, valued occupations, social roles, and identity. These concerns are often significant for people with disability or illness; therefore, they should not be ignored simply out of professional discomfort. Occupational therapy has the power to play a meaningful and significant role in people's lives, and through this power, it also has an obligation to view clients as whole people, which includes sex and sexuality.