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Research Guide: Citations: BOOKS - APA Reference List

Formatting

Hanging Indents:

All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Hyperlinks:

It is acceptable for hyperlinks to be blue and underlined (live) or black without underlining.

All hyperlinks must include https://

Do not put a period after DOIs or hyperlinks.

How Can I Tell if it's a Book in Print or an eBook?

A print book means it's printed on paper. If you checked the book out of a library or bought it from a bookstore, it's print.

An eBook is a book you can read entirely online.

Note that most of the time, references are exactly the same for a print copy of a book and an eBook copy of the same book from a library database.

Tips

Authors/Editors

An author won't necessarily be a person's name. It may be an organization or company, for example Health Canada. These are called group or corporate authors.

If a book has no author or editor, begin the citation with the book title, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

If an author is also the publisher, put the word "Author" where you'd normally put the publisher name. This happens most often with corporate or group authors.

When a book has one to twenty authors or editors, all authors' names are cited in the Reference List entry. When a book has twenty-one or more authors or editors, list the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name. Rules are different for in-text citations; please see the examples provided.

Titles

Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title. If there is a colon (:) in the title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.

Capitalize the first letter of proper names in titles, such as names of places or people. Example: Canada

Publication Information for Online Encyclopedias and Dictonaries

Include the publisher name for an encyclopedia or dictionary where clearly identified, just as with a book or ebook. If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher element.

Some electronic content is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If a DOI is provided for an encyclopedia or dictionary, include it after the name of the encyclopedia or dictionary of the entry and edition beginning with "https:"

You do not need to put a period after a DOI number.

If you accessed the encyclopedia or dictionary through a website, provide the url. If the encyclopedia or dictionary provides stable archived versions, link to the latest one without "retrieved from"; no statement of the retrieval date is necessary in this case. A statement of the retrieval date should be provided for any web pages that are dynamic and not archived. When in doubt, provide a retrieval date to help the reader in case the entry you use is updated between the time you read it and the time your reader looks at it.

In-Text Citation - Page Numbers

Page numbers may not be available for an online dictionary or encyclopedia entry. Here are some options if you have no page numbers and you are quoting directly:

Count the paragraphs, and use that number where you'd normally put the page number. Put the word "para." in front of it. Example: (Smith, 2012, para. 3). This example refers to the third paragraph in the entry. 

If the entry has section headings, you can use those. Encyclopedia entries often have section headings. Enter the section heading name, followed by the word "section" and then the number of the paragraph within that section. Example: (Smith, 2012, Climate section, para. 2). This example refers to the second paragraph under the Climate section of the entry.

If there is only one paragraph and no headings, as may be the case for many dictionary entries, skip the page/paragraph/section information and give the author's name and date only. Example: (Smith, 2012)

Seneca College Libraries

This page is used/adapted with the permission of Seneca College Libraries. For information please contact lcc@senecacollege.ca.

Note: When copying this page, please retain this box.

Books & eBooks - APA

One Author (Print or eBook from Library Database)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

For eBooks, the database is not required. 

Example

Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Watson, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Watson, 2012, p. 70)

Two to Twenty Authors (Print or eBook from Library Database)

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Note:

Authors' names are separated by commas. Put a comma and an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author cited.

Must include ALL names in the reference list for publications with up to 20 authors.

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

For library eBooks, the database is not required.

Example

Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raash, M. F. (2011). Canine and feline nutrition: A resource for companion animal professionals (3rd ed.). Mosby.

In-text

See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"

Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate Author. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

If the Corporate Author is also the publisher of the book, omit the Publisher Name.

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

Example

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).

In-Text 

See Chart Below "In-Text Citation for Group of Corporate Authors"

Editor(s), but no Author(s)

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Note:

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

For a book with more than one editor, follow name conventions for a Book with Two to Twenty Authors

Example

Leitch, M.G. (Ed.). (2019). A new companion to Malory. D.S. Brewer.

 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Editor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Leitch, 2019)

In-Text Quote

(Editor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Leitch, 2019, p. 55)

Chapters, Short Stories, Essays, or Articles from a Book (Anthology or Collection)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter, article, essay or short story. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if Given. Editor's Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (edition if given and is not first edition, pp. first page number-last page number). Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

If you have more than one editor list their name(s) after the first editor listed in the book, giving their initials and last name. Put an ampersand (&) before the last editor's name.

When you have one editor the short form (Ed.) is used after the editor's name. If you have more than one editor use (Eds.) instead.

Example

Stockert, P.A. & Taylor, C. (2014). Sleep. In P.A. Potter, A.G. Perry, J.C. Ross-Kerr & M.J. Wood (Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th Cdn. ed., pp. 993-1016). Elsevier.

Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year) 

Example (2 authors): (Stockert & Taylor, 2014)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number) 

Example (2 authors): (Stockert & Taylor, 2014, p. 998)

eBook from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher. URL

Example (one author)

Nightingale, F. (1860). Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not. Harrison and Sons. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/ 17366/17366-h/17366-h.htm

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nightingale, 1860)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Nightingale, 1860, p. 157)

In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
In-Text Citation For Group or Corporate Authors
Type of Group First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Groups readily identified through abbreviations

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003, p. 5) (NIMH, 2003, p. 5)
Groups with no abbreviations (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)

Encyclopedias & Dictionaries - APA

Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry in Print - Known Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (Volume number, pp. first page of entry-last page of entry). Publisher Name often shortened.

Example

King, P.N., & Wester L. (1998). Hawaii. In The world book encyclopedia (Vol. 9, pp. 88-110). World Book.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (King & Wester, 1998)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

(King & Wester, 1998, p. 90)

Encyclopedia or Dictionary in Print - Group Author

Name of Group Author. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (Volume number if any, pp. first page of entry-last page of entry or p. page number for one page entry). Publisher Name often shortened.

Example

Chambers Harrap. (2007). Crop circles. In U. McGovern (Ed.), Chambers dictionary of the unexplained (p. 27). Chambers.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Group Author, Year)

Example: (Chambers Harrap, 2007)

In-Text Quote

(Group Author, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Chambers Harrap, 2007, p. 27)

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary from Library Database - Known Author - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition, volume number if there is more than one, page range). Publisher Name.

Example

Maher, J. (2010). Work and mothering. In A. O’Reilly (Ed.), Encyclopedia of motherhood (Vol. 3, pp. 1278-1283). SAGE.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Maher, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

Example: (Maher, 2010, p. 1279)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from.

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary from Library Database - Known Author - With DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition). https://doi number

Example

Stonard, J. (2016). Wall, Jeff(rey). In Grove art online. https://doi.org/10.1093/gao/9781884446054.article.T096536

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Stonard, 2016)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

Example: (Stonard, 2016, para. 1)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from.

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary from a Website - Group Author

Name of Group Author. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from date url

Example

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Plagiarism. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved January 18, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarism

In-Text Paraphrase

(Group author, Year)

Example: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

In-Text Quote

(Group author, Year, p. page number or section name and paragraph number)

Example: (Merriam-Webster, n.d., The Kidnapping Roots of Plagiarize section)

Note: This entry has only section headings so only this information can be included the citation.