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Research Guide: Citations: ARTICLES - APA Reference List

Formatting

Hanging Indents:

All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Hyperlinks:

It is acceptable for hyperlinks to be blue and underlined (live) or black without underlining.

All hyperlinks must include https://

Do not put a period after DOIs or hyperlinks.

How Do I Know If It's a Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper?

Journal Articles

Not sure whether your article is from a journal? Look for these characteristics:

  • Main purpose is often to report results of original search
  • Articles usually have a very narrow, technical subject focus
  • May see labeled sections such as the abstract, discussion, results, and conclusion
  • Author of the article is an expert or specialist in the field and often their credentials are listed
  • Article is intended for students, scientists, researchers and/or professionals instead of the general public
  • Usually includes a References list at the end

Articles may also come from magazines or newspapers.

Magazine Articles

Not sure whether your article is from a magazine? Look for these characteristics:

Popular magazines:

  • Main purpose is to entertain, sell products or promote a viewpoint.
  • Appeal to the general public.
  • Often have many photos and illustrations, as well as many advertisements.
  • Author may or may not have subject expertise.
  • Name and credentials of authors often NOT provided.
  • Articles tend to be short –less than 5 pages.
  • Unlikely to have a bibliography or references list.

Trade magazines:

  • Main purpose is to update and inform readers on current trends in a specific industry or trade.
  • Audience is members of a specific industry or trade or professors and students in that trade or industry.
  • May have photos and numerous advertisements, but still assume that readers understand specific jargon of the profession.
  • Usually published by an association.
  • Authors are professionals working in the specific industry or trade.

Newspaper Articles

Not sure whether your article is from a newspaper? Look for these characteristics:

  • Main purpose is to provide readers with a brief account of current events locally, nationally or internationally.
  • Can be published daily, semiweekly or weekly.
  • Articles are usually written by journalists who may or may not have subject expertise.
  • Written for the general public, readers don't need any previous subject knowledge.
  • Little, if any, information about other sources is provided.

Tips

Author

Today, scientific articles can have many authors due to large-scale experiments run by large teams. In some research areas, an article can even have hundreds of authors! Generally, the first author is considered the lead author, so when citing it is important not to change the order co-authors are listed in. For details on how to balance efficiency and accuracy when citing academic articles with long lists of authors, see the various examples on this page.

Titles

Italicize titles of journals, magazines and newspapers. Do not italicize the titles of articles.

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of the article title. If there is a colon in the article title, also capitalize the first letter of the first word after the colon.

Dates

If an item has no date, use the short form n.d. where you would normally put the date.

Volume and Issue Numbers

Italicize volume numbers but not issue numbers

Retrieval Dates

Most articles will not need these in the citation. Only use them for online articles from places where content may change often, such as a social media site like Academia.edu.

Page Numbers

If an article doesn't appear on continuous pages, list all the page numbers the article is on, separated by commas. For example (4, 6, 12-14)

What is a DOI?

DOI Numbers in Library Databases

Some electronic content is assigned a unique number called a Digital Object Identifier (DOI). If a DOI is provided for a journal article, include it after the page numbers of the article as a hyperlink - https://doi.org/xxxxx

You do not need to put a period after a DOI number.

Seneca College Libraries

This page is used/adapted with the permission of Seneca College Libraries. For information please contact lcc@senecacollege.ca.

Note: When copying this page, please retain this box.

Journal Articles from Library Database - APA

One Author - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Example

Bailey, N.W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Bailey, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

(Bailey, 2012, p. 562)

One Author - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. 

Example

Carlisle, D. (2012). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012, p. 18)

Two to Twenty Authors - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Example

Pempek, T.A., Yermolayeva, Y.A., & Calvert, S.L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3(2)227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010t

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"

Two to Twenty Authors - no DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including twenty authors. When a source has twenty-one or more authors, include the first twenty authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the library database for journal articles without a DOI as these works are widely available.

Example

Bogan, E., & Paun, E. (2011). The assimilation of immigrants into the British labor market. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3(2), 272. 

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
When You Have 21 or More Authors

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

Example

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/fg6rf9

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016, p. 103)

Journal Article From a Website - One Author - APA

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given). URL

Example

Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1(30). https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

(Flachs, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)

Note: In this example there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, so you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. 

Journal Article In Print - One Author - APA

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

Example

Jungers, W.L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463(2), 433-434.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Jungers, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)

Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)

Magazines & Newspapers - APA

One Author - From Library Database or in Print

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Example

Abramsky, S. (2012, May 14). The other America 2012. Nation, 294(20), 11-18. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Abramsky, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Abramsky, 2012, p. 14)

Example

Schachter, H. (2012, June 18). What does it take to be a good team player? The Globe and Mail, B7.

Note: If an article ends with a question mark or exclamation mark (!), you do not need to add a period to mark the end of the title.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Schachter, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

(Schachter, 2012, p. B7)

One Author - From a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper. URL

Example

Aw, J. (2012, June 12). Stopping the soda bulge: Why we need to consider restricting sugary beverages. National Post.  https://nationalpost.com/health/stopping-the-soda-bulge-why-we-need-to-consider-restricting-sugary-beverages

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Aw, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Aw, 2012, para. 1)

Note: This entry has no page numbers, so a paragraph number is used instead.

Webpage from a News Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of News  Website. URL

Note:

Use this format for articles published in online news sources such as BBC News, HuffPost, CNN, Salon etc. 

Example

Tucker, E. & Miller, Z. (2020, Jan. 18). Dems gear up to make case for Trump's removal. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/dems-gear-up-to-make-case-for-trumps-removal_n_5e23569ec5b6321176149dbe

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Tucker & Miller, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Tucker & Miller, 2020)

Note: This entry has no page numbers, so a paragraph number is used instead.

 

Newspaper Article in Print

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Newspaper, SectionPage.

Example

Aulakh, R. (2012, June 13). From surviving to thriving. Toronto Star, GT1, GT4.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Aulakh, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Aulakh, 2012, p. GT1)

Newspaper Article with an Unknown Author

Title of article: Subtitle if any. (Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Name of Newspaper, p. SectionPage.

Note: If instead of having no author, the article is signed as being written by "Anonymous", put the name "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name. Only use the word Anonymous if the article is specifically credited that way.

Example

Get on board for train safety. (2012, June 17). Toronto Star, A14.

In-Text Paraphrase

("One two or three words from the title", Year)

Example: ("Get on board", 2012)

Note: Choose one or more of the first words from the title, enough to clearly identify the article in the Reference list. Use double quotation marks around the words from the title of an article in the in-text citation.

In-Text Quote

("One two or three words from the title", Year, p. Page Number)

Example: ("Get on board," p. A14)

Note: Choose one or more of the first words from the title, enough to clearly identify the article in the Reference list. Use double quotation marks around the words from the title of an article in the in-text citation.