Occupational Therapy

Guide to research in the area of occupational therapy. Also helpful for the areas of physical therapy, nursing, health, physiology and kinesiology.



For those of you planning to use an interview as a source or the basis for your paper, here are a few guidelines and things to think about:

How to Conduct Effective Interviews

Source: "5 types of Questions for Semi-structured Interviews // Easy Guideline for Asking the Right Questions" by Social Design with Kirstine, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

  • 0:00 Introduction
  • 0:35 Conversational Questions
  • 1:17 Grand Tour Questions
  • 2:07 Example Questions
  • 2:58 Follow-up Questions
  • 5:18 Closing Question(s)

Personal Communication - APA

Interviews and E-mail

Note: Interviews and e-mail are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the interview or e-mail.

(First Initial of Person Who Was Interviewed or sent the e-mail. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year interview took place or e-mail was received)

Citation examples

"Infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (J. D. Black, personal communication, May 30, 2013)


Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation.

J.D. Black explained that "infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (personal communication, May 30, 2013).

Note: Published interviews can appear in many types of sources (magazines, newspapers etc.). When citing published interviews, follow the guidelines for the type of source it was published in.

Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers

Note: Official APA Style does not provide a format for citing oral teachings of Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers.  These formats are offered following the recommendation from:

Last name, First Initial. Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live, if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.



Cardinal, D. Goodfish Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Last Name, Year)

Example: (Cardinal, 2004)

In-Text Quote

(Last Name, Year)

Example: (Cardinal, 2004)

Note: This APA template does not provide specific rules for direct quoting indigenous elders, so this is a recommendation.