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Research Guide: Citations: ONLINE SOURCES - APA Reference List

Formatting

Hanging Indents:

All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Hyperlinks:

It is acceptable for hyperlinks to be blue and underlined (live) or black without underlining.

All hyperlinks must include https://

Do not put a period after DOIs or hyperlinks.

On The Web But Not a Website?

Be careful! Just because you found something on the web, it doesn’t mean you are citing a website.

Look at the material closely – is it a journal article? A newspaper article? An encyclopedia? An eBook? Use the format that best describes the item. APA treats a source as a website only when it does not fit another category. 

Tips

Author

It can sometimes be difficult to find out who the author of a website is. Remember that an author can be a corporation or group, not only a specific person. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website.

If there is no known author, you can start the citation with the title of the website instead. However, APA tends to reserve this type of citation for a very small set of sources: for example, The Bible and some dictionaries and encyclopedias such as Wikipedia (which should not form a central part of your research). 

Date

The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website.

If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day.

If there is no date provided, put the letters (n.d.) in round brackets where you'd normally put the date.

Title

Titles of websites should be in plain text but use italics for webpages, articles, etc.

Retrieval Date

Most website citations in APA 7th Edition do not require a retrieval date. Unfortunately, however, determining which situations require this date can be challenging. If you use a stable, archived version of a web page, no retrieval date is needed. But if you use a web page that is continually updated, providing a retrieval date can help clarify inconsistencies between the page when you viewed it and when it was viewed by your reader. 

Long URLs

If a URL is too long to fit onto one line, try to break it at a slash (/).

Tips for Citing Images

Reproducing Images, Charts, Tables & Graphs

Reproducing happens when you copy or recreate an image, table, graph or chart that is not your original creation. If you reproduce one of these works in your assignment, you must create a note underneath the image, chart, table or graph to show where you found it. 

Citing Information From an Image, Chart, Table or Graph

If you refer to information from an image, chart, table or graph, but do not reproduce it in your paper, create a citation both in-text and on your Reference list.

If the information is part of another format, for example a book, magazine article, encyclopedia, etc., cite the work it came from. For example if information came from a table in an article in National Geographic magazine, you would cite the entire article.

If you are only making a passing reference to a well known image, you would not have to cite it, e.g. describing someone as having a Mona Lisa smile.

Figure Numbers

Each image you reproduce should be assigned a figure number, starting with number 1 for the first image used in the assignment.

Title

Images may not have a set title. If this is the case give a description of the image where you would normally put the title.

Copyright Information

When reproducing images, include copyright information in the citation if it is given, including the year and the copyright holder. Copyright information on a website may often be found at the bottom of the home page.

Citing Images in APA Style

Creating Citations for Images

Did you know you are required to cite images in papers and presentations?

In the body of the paper or on a slide:

  • Above the image:
    • Include the bolded word Figure and the number of the figure (you would need to number any subsequent figures sequentially in your paper)
    • Include the title of the image in title-case italics
  • Below the image:
    • Include this word in italics: Note.
    • Include citation information in this format (note that this is a different format than the formal APA citation that you include on the References page):
      • for webpages:
        • Title of Webpage in Italics and Title Case, by A. Author and B. Author, year, Site Name (URL). Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder
      • for articles:
        • “Title of Article in Title Case” by A. Author and B. Author, year, Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), p. xx (DOI or URL). Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.
Example:

Figure 1

More Farmers in Peru Have Stopped Planting Coca, Opting for Cacao and Coffee

More Farmers in Peru Have Stopped Planting Coca, Opting for Cacao and Coffee

Note. From Peruvian Prosperity: From Coca Farmer to Chocolate Maker, by N. Guitierrez, 2016, USAID (https://www.usaid.gov/results-data/success-stories/coca-farmer-chocolate-maker). Copyright 2016 by USAID.

 

On the References page:
  • include the entire formal APA citation for the source
    Example:

    USAID. (2016, September). Peruvian prosperity: From coca farmer to chocolate maker. https://www.usaid.gov/results-data/success-stories/coca-farmer-chocolate-maker

More Citation Help

Seneca College Libraries

This page is used/adapted with the permission of Seneca College Libraries. For information please contact lcc@senecacollege.ca.

Note: When copying this page, please retain this box.

Websites - APA

Page or Section of a Website - One Author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). Website name. URL

Example

Kmec, J. (2012, March 13). Where’s the Boss? And What Counts as “Work”? The Society Pages. https://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2012/03/13/wheres-the-boss-and-what-counts-as-work/ 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author Last Name, Year)

Example: (Kmec, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author Last Name, Year, Section Name section, para. Paragraph Number if more than one paragraph in section)

Example: (Kmec, 2012, para. 1)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the paragraph number to identify where your quote came from.

Page or Section of a Website - Corporate or Group Author

Corporation/Group/Organization's Name. (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of page: Subtitle (if any). URL

Example

Canadian Cancer Society. (2013, April 14). Cancer research. http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-101/cancer-research/?region=on

In-Text Paraphrase

(Corporation/Group's Name, Year)

Example: (Canadian Cancer Society, 2013)

In-Text Quote

(Corporation/Group's Name, year, Section Name section, para. Paragraph Number if more than one paragraph in section)

Example: (Canadian Cancer Society, 2013, Behavioural research section, para. 2)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the paragraph number to identify where your quote came from.

Page or Section of a Website - Unknown Author

Title of page: Subtitle (if any). (Year webpage was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Name of Website. URL

Example

Timeline: Environmental movement (n.d.).  The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timeline/environment

Or, to emphasize that the page could be updated, include a retrieval date:

Timeline: Environmental movement (n.d.).  The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 20, 2020, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/timeline/environment

Note: For further explanation of retrieval dates, see the Tips section on this page.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Shortened title, Year)

Example: (Timeline: Environmental, n.d)

In-Text Quote

(Shortened title, Year, Section Name section, para. Paragraph Number if more than one paragraph in section)

Example: (Timeline: Environmental, n.d, Canadian National Parks Act section)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph to identify where your quote came from. In this example, there is only one paragraph under the specific heading, so no paragraph number is needed.

Government Document from a Website

Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee. (Year of Publication, Month Day). Title of document: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher if different from author. URL

Example

Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services. (2010, April 27). Your preschool child's speech and language development. http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/earlychildhood/ speechlanguage/brochure_preschool.aspx

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee, Year)

Example: (Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Government Department, Agency or Committee, Year, Section Name section, para. Paragraph Number if more than one paragraph in section)

(Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2010, By Age Five section, para. 4)

Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph to identify where your quote came from.

Report or Document from a Website - Corporate or Group Author

Corporation/Group/Organization's Name. (Year report was last updated/published, Month Day if given). Title of report: Subtitle if given (Pub. No. Publication Number if given). Website Name if different from author. URL

Example

College of Nurses of Ontario. (2009). Practice standard: Ethics (Pub. No. 41034). http://www.cno.org/docs/prac/41034_Ethics.pdf

Note: If there was a chapter or section number instead of a publication number, it would be included after the title in the same place as the publication number: (Chapter xx) or (Section xx).

In-Text Paraphrase

(Corporation/Group's Name, Year)

Example: (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2009)

In-Text Quote

(Corporation/Group's Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2009, p. 4)

Image from a Website

Creator Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Creator Alias. (Year of Publication, if available). Title of the artwork [Format]. Title of the Website. URL

Example

Bansky. (2004). Gansta rat [Online image]. https://www.artsy.net/artwork/bansky-gangsta-rat-113

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name/Alias, Year)

Example: (Banksy, 2009)

Other Online Sources - APA

Blog Post

Author's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given or Username if real name not provided. (Year blog post was published, Month Day). Title of blog post. Title of Blog. URL

Example

Dobbs, D. (2012, June 13). Fun in cities: Feature, not bug. Wired Science. http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2012/06/fun-in-cities-feature-not-bug/

Note: If the blog author's real name is not provided, use their username instead.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, Section Heading section if given)

Example: (Dobbs, 2012)

Note: This blog post has no page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings so this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Podcast Episode

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (episode number if known) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. Publisher. URL if known

Example

O’Brien, C. (Host). (2020, July 6). Tom Hanks (Ep. 79) [Audio podcast episode]. In Conan O’Brien needs a friend. Team Coco. https://www.earwolf.com/episode/tom-hanks-2/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (O'Brien, 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Example: (O'Brien, 2020)

Note: Because podcasts do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Twitter (Tweets)

Author last name, First initial. Second initial if given [@Twitter user name]. (Year tweet was posted, Month Day). Text of post up to the first twenty words [Tweet]. Twitter. URL

Example

Giridharadas, A. [@AnandWrites]. (2020, January 17). The fallacy of our age is that we can lift up those down below without interfering with those standing [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/AnandWrites/status/1218203291982749697

Note: Write out the actual text of the post in the citation and keep spelling, capitalization, and grammar the same as in the original, even if there are errors. Include any emojis that are present. If there is multimedia content note it in square brackets after the post (eg. [Video]).

In-Text Paraphrase

(Last name, Year)

Example: (Giridharadas, 2020)

Note: if there is no author last name, use the name of the account as you would with a group author.

In-Text Quote

(Twitter user name, Year)

Example: (Giridharadas, 2020)

Note: Because tweets do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Streaming Video - APA

From a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name Known

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted/uploaded the video is credited as the author.

Example

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2009, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video]. YouTube. http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2009)

In-Text Quote

(Creator's Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Nye, 2009, 2:12)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

From a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name Unknown

User name that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author.

Example

All Aces Media. (2012, January 19). Often awesome the series [Video]. Vimeo. http://vimeo.com/35311255

In-Text Paraphrase

(User name, Year)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(User name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012, 3:17)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

From a Subscription Service or Library Collection (Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, Kanopy, etc.)

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year of Publication). Title of Movie [Film]. Production Company. 

Note: Only specify how you watched a film (on DVD, streaming, etc.) when it is important to indicate a specific version. Put this information in in the square brackets following the word "Film" and a semicolon. If you have more than one director use (Directors) instead and separate their names with commas, adding an ampersand (&) before the final name.  If the director is unknown, credit someone in a similar role (producer/writer) and put their job title in round brackets after their name. 

Example

Gitlitz, R. (Director). (2017). The story of Diana [Film]. ABC Entertainment.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director Last name, Year)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017)

In-Text Quote

(Director Last name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017, 51:45)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Television Series Episode

Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year the episode was originally aired, Month Day if known). Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive Producer), Television series nameProduction Company

Note: Include the writer and director for the episode and put their job title in round brackets after their name.  If one person did both jobs use (Writer & Director).

Cite the URL for the log-in page instead of the URL for the actual movie. Omit the URL if the TV episode was viewed on cable television rather than online.

Example Oakley, B. K. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (2020, January 1). The Key (Season 6, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), Vikings. History. 
In-Text Paraphrase

(Writer & Director Last Names, Year)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020)

In-Text Quote

 (Writer & Director Last Names, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020, 17:53)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Original Content from a Database - APA

Original Content from a Database (Career Planner, CultureGrams, etc.)

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. or name of Publisher of content. (Year content was created, if available). Title of content [Fact sheet]. Database Name.

Note: Original content from a database differs from articles in a database because there may not be a known author or date. Often this content can be referred to as a "fact sheet" thought not always.

Example

SchoolData. (n.d.). Pediatrician - duties [Fact sheet]. Career Planner.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name/Publisher, Year)

Example: (SchoolData, n.d.)