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Research Guide: Citations: In-Text Citations - APA

APA In-Text Citations: The Basics



  • When you paraphrase information or directly quote from a source, you must cite the source within the body of your paper
  • All in-text citations must point to full citations that you include on the References page at the end of your paper

In Text Citations - APA


Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication)

One Author

  • A recent study of Korean elders found... (Rodriguez, 2003).
  • Rodriguez (2003) found that Korean elders...  

Two Authors

  • ...concluded that obesity is a major risk factor (Hepburn & Hafiz, 2001).
  • Hepburn and Hafiz (2001) concluded that obesity... 

Three or more Authors

  • A comparison of marital fidelity (Strong et al., 1999) showed…    
  • Strong, et al. (1999) compared marital fidelity...                 

No Author

...incidence of drought increased 10%  (“Weather Patterns,” 2009).                     

[full title = “Weather patterns wreak havoc for Oklahoma farmers”]

No Date

...Orissi dance has undergone a major revival since the 1950s (Gupta, n.d.)

Direct Quotes

Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication, p. #)

With Page Number

  • “Social inclusion helps Korean elders avoid clinical depression” (Rodriguez, 2003, p. 13).
  • “Surprisingly the rate of male infidelity is not dramatically different than that of female infidelity” (Strong et al., 1999, p. 222).     

With No Page Number 

“Visualization techniques have proven effective for breast cancer patients” (Smith, 1997, Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

[if possible include heading names or paragraph numbers to help readers locate the passage]

When a journal article has twenty-one or more authors:

References List

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.


Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471.

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016, p. 103)

Quick Guide - APA

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