Research Guide: Citations

APA In-Text Citations

In-Text Citations (APA)

Basic Format - PARAPHRASING:
(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication)

(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication, p. #)

Explanation Example
  • When you paraphrase information or quote directly from a source, you must cite the source within the body of your essay or your presentation
  • In-text citations are shortened versions of the full citations that you must include on the References page at the end of your essay or presentation
  • example of an in-text citation for a quote: (West, 2009, p. 110).
  • example of an in-text citation for a paraphrase: (Mirrer, 2018).


Chocolate is often viewed as a junk food, but its value as unique nutritional source should not be underestimated. In fact, a survey of early South Pole explorer diaries shows that larger chocolate rations “may have been a deciding factor between Roald Amundsen’s successful trek to the South Pole and the fatal attempt by Robert Scott” (West, 2009, p. 110). The fact that chocolate was not seen as a frivolity, but deemed important enough staple to pack on these grueling expeditions is a testament to its value in the human diet. Also, there is the more modern comparison that M&M’s chocolate candies were chosen for military expeditions in World War II because they were an energy boosting snack that also did not easily melt (Mirrer, 2018).


Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication)


One Author
(Last Name, year).

  • A recent study of Korean elders found... (Rodriguez, 2003).
  • Rodriguez (2003) found that Korean elders...  

Two Authors
(Last Name & Last Name, year).

  • ...concluded that obesity is a major risk factor (Hepburn & Hafiz, 2001).
  • Hepburn and Hafiz (2001) concluded that obesity... 

Three or more Authors
(Last Name, et al., year).

  • A comparison of marital fidelity (Strong et al., 1999) showed…    
  • Strong, et al. (1999) compared marital fidelity...                 

No Author
(“Shortened Title,” year).

...incidence of drought increased 10%  (“Weather Patterns,” 2009).                     

[full title = “Weather patterns wreak havoc for Oklahoma farmers”]

No Date
(Last Name, n.d.).

...Orissi dance has undergone a major revival since the 1950s (Gupta, n.d.)

Direct Quotes

Basic Format:
(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication, p. #)


With Page Number
(Last Name, year, p. #).

  • “Social inclusion helps Korean elders avoid clinical depression” (Rodriguez, 2003, p. 13).
  • “Surprisingly the rate of male infidelity is not dramatically different than that of female infidelity” (Strong et al., 1999, p. 222).     

With No Page Number 
(Last Name, year, name of section heading or para. #).

  • “Visualization techniques have proven effective for breast cancer patients” (Smith, 1997, Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

[if possible include heading names or paragraph numbers to help readers locate the passage]

Secondary Source: when your source quotes from another, secondary source
(Secondary Source, year, as cited in Your Source, year, p. #).

  • There is a “crucible of health inequity, systemic racism, and sexism in which Black pregnant people choose to mother” (Egede & Walker, 2020, as cited in Kemet et al., 2021, p. 779).

    [Kemet is your source. Kemet cited Egede & Walker. You are citing Egede & Walker as a secondary source that you accessed through Kemet. You only include the full citation for Kemet in your References page, not Egede & Walker]

Example sources:

Order of Sources with Same Author and Date

Follow guidelines for citing source type and add letters (a, b, c...etc.) after date


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Measles.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Mumps.

World Health Organization. (n.d.-a). Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants.

World Health Organization. (n.d.-b).

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author, Year, letter)

Example: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2023b)

Example: (World Health Organization, n.d.-a)

In-Text Quote

(Author, Year, letter, page number or para.)

Example: (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2023b, para. 5)

Example: (World Health Organization, n.d-a, section 4, para. 2)

from APA Manual Seventh Edition 8.19, 9.47

A paraphrase may continue for several sentences. In such cases, cite the work being paraphrased on first mention. Once the work has been cited, it is not necessary to repeat the citation as long as the context of the writing makes it clear that the same work continues to be paraphrased.


Velez et al. (2018) found that for women of color, sexism and racism in the workplace were associated with poor work and mental health outcomes, including job-related burnout, turnover intentions, and psychological distress. However, self-esteem, person–organization fit, and perceived organizational support mediated these effects. Additionally, stronger womanist attitudes—which acknowledge the unique challenges faced by women of color in a sexist and racist society—weakened the association of workplace discrimination with psychological distress. These findings underscore the importance of considering multiple forms of workplace discrimination in clinical practice and research with women of color, along with efforts to challenge and reduce such discrimination.

If the paraphrase continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation. If the paraphrase incorporates multiple sources or switches among sources, repeat the citation so the source is clear.

Format quotations of 40 words or more as block quotations:

  • Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation.
  • Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin.
  • Double-space the entire block quotation.
  • Do not add extra space before or after it.
  • If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 in. See an example in Section 8.27 of the Publication Manual.
  • Either (a) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or (b) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation.
  • Do not add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case.



Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)


for more info see: APA Style Quotations

Quick Guide - APA

Quick Guide - APA Citation Style

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