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Research Guide: Citations: OTHER SOURCES - APA Reference List

Formatting

Hanging Indents:

All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

Hyperlinks:

It is acceptable for hyperlinks to be blue and underlined (live) or black without underlining.

All hyperlinks must include https://

Do not put a period after DOIs or hyperlinks.

Seneca College Libraries

This page is used/adapted with the permission of Seneca College Libraries. For information please contact lcc@senecacollege.ca.

Note: When copying this page, please retain this box.

Videos & DVDs - APA

DVD with Known Producer, Director, and/or Writer

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Director). (Year DVD was produced). Title of DVD [Film; optional descriptive information if DVD is a unique version]. Production Company.

Note: In general, you don't need to cite the format of a movie. However, include it if the information you are citing can be found only in that particular format or edition (e.g. special features or commentary).  

Example

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

Note: If there is more than one production company, separate their names with a semi-colon (;).

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director Last Name, Year)

Example: (Jackson, 2001)

In-Text Quote

(Director Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Jackson, 2001, 1:23:46)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Movie with Unknown Producer, Director and/or Writer

Title of movie [Film]. (Year Movie was Produced). Production Company.

Note: When the Director, Producer and/or Writer is not known, start the citation with the movie title.

Example

Era of viruses [Film]. (2006). Films for the Humanities and Sciences.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Title Of Movie, Year)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2006)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

In-Text Quote

(Title Of Movie, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Era Of Viruses, 2006, 1:03:42)

Note: Italicize the title of the DVD and capitalize the words for the in-text citation.

Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Mobile Application Software (App) - APA

Name of Company that created the application or Creator's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given (Year current version of the application was released). Name of application (Version version number if given) [Mobile application software]. Publisher Name or App Store. URL application was downloaded from.

Note: Only cite software and apps when they are not widely known or available. Citations are not needed for common apps such as Microsoft Word or Twitter.

Example

National Geographic Society (2012). National parks by National Geographic (Version 1.2) [Mobile app]. Apple App Store. http://www.apple.com/itunes/

In-Text Paraphrase

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Name of Company or Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (National Geographic Society, 2012)

Note: Because apps typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings,this information is left out of the in-text citation.

Personal Communication - APA

Interviews and E-mail

Note: Interviews and e-mail are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the interview or e-mail.

(First Initial of Person Who Was Interviewed or sent the e-mail. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year interview took place or e-mail was received)

Example

"Infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (J. D. Black, personal communication, May 30, 2013)

Example

Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation.

J.D. Black explained that "infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (personal communication, May 30, 2013).

Note: Published interviews can appear in many types of sources (magazines, newspapers etc.). When citing published interviews, follow the guidelines for the type of source it was published in.

Class Notes, Class Lectures, & Presentations - APA

PowerPoint Slides from a Classroom Website or Learning Management System (Canvas, Blackboard, Moodle, etc.)

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation Was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Name of Website or LMS. URL

Note: If slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g., Canvas) or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login).

Example

Straton, K. (2020). Introduction: APA citations [PowerPoint presentation]. Green River College Canvas. https://egator.greenriver.edu/login/canvas

Note: APA is capitalized because it is an acronym standing for American Psychological Association.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Instructor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Straton 2020)

In-Text Quote

(Instructor's Last Name, Year, slide slide number)

Example (Straton, 2020, slide 6)

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.

PowerPoint Slides from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year Presentation Was Created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any [PowerPoint presentation]. Name of Website if given. URL

Example

Kunka, J. L. (n.d.). Conquering the comma [PowerPoint presentation]. Purdue University Writing Lab Website. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/pp/index.html#presentations

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Kunka, n.d.)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, slide slide number)

Example: (Kunka, n.d., slide 10)

Note: When no date is given, use the initials "n.d." where you'd normally put the date.

Note: APA does not provide specific rules for direct quoting of PowerPoint slides. We recommend giving the slide number.

Notes from Class Lectures

Note: Your own notes from a lecture are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the class lecture.

(First Initial of Faculty Who Gave Lecture. Second Initial if known. Last Name, personal communication, Month Day, Year lecture took place)

Example

"Infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (J. D. Black, personal communication, May 30, 2012)

Example

Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation.

J.D. Black explained that "infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital" (personal communication, May 30, 2012).