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Citations for Oral Presentations
Citing During Oral Presentations
You need to verbally cite your sources as you speak
- You need to convince your audience that you are a credible speaker. Building on the work of others lends authority to your presentation.
- You need to prove that your information comes from solid, reliable sources that your audience can trust.
- You need to give credit to others for their ideas, data, images (even on PowerPoint slides), and words to avoid plagiarism.
- You need to leave a path for your audience so they can locate your sources.
Citing Effectively in a Speech
When you give a speech...
(click on image to enlarge)
How to cite effectively in your speech
When citing books:
- Ineffective: “Margaret Brownwell writes in her book Dieting Sensibly that fad diets telling you ‘eat all you want’ are dangerous and misguided.” (Although the speaker cites and author and book title, who is Margaret Brownwell? No information is presented to establish her authority on the topic.)
- Better: “Margaret Brownwell, professor of nutrition at the Univeristy of New Mexico , writes in her book, Dieting Sensibly, that …” (The author’s credentials are clearly described.)
When citing Magazine, Journal, or Newspaper articles
- Ineffective: “An article titled ‘Biofuels Boom’ from the ProQuest database notes that midwestern energy companies are building new factories to convert corn to ethanol.” (Although ProQuest is the database tool used to retrieve the information, the name of the newspaper or journal and publication date should be cited as the source.)
- Better: “An article titled ‘Biofuels Boom’ in a September 2010 issue of Journal of Environment and Development” notes that midwestern energy companies…” (Name and date of the source provides credibility and currency of the information as well as giving the audience better information to track down the source.)
When citing websites
- Ineffective: “According to generationrescue.org, possible recovery from autism includes dietary interventions.” (No indication of the credibility or sponsoring organization or author of the website is given)
- Better: “According to pediatrician Jerry Kartzinel, consultant for generationrescue.org, an organization that provides information about autism treatment options, possibly recovery from autism includes dietary interventions.” (author and purpose of the website is clearly stated.)
Note: some of the above examples are quoted from: Metcalfe, Sheldon. Building a Speech. 7th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. Google Books. Web. 17 Mar. 2012.
Example of a Verbal Citation
Example of a verbal citation from a CMST 238 class at Green River College, Auburn, WA, February 2019
MLA Guidelines for Oral Presentations
Guidelines for MLA:
- The first time a source is mentioned, provide enough information about the source for your audience to locate it - author, title and date
- Other publication information can be included if relevant
- Use clear and varied phrases to introduce a quoted or paraphrased source
- Clearly indicate to your audience when a quote ends and your own words resume