Physical Therapy

Use this guide as a starting point for your research in the area of physical therapy as well as topics in general health, physiology and kinesiology.

Citing Sources

NoodleTools Citation Generator

NoodleTools Tutorials

Citation Basics

  1. Place in-text citations in the body of the paper to acknowledge the source of your information.  This is meant to be a shortened version of the full citation that appears on the final page of your paper.
  2. Place full citations for all your sources on the last page entitled References or Works Cited (different citation styles require different titles).  Full citations are meant to provide readers with enough information so that they can locate the source themselves.
  3. APA or MLA are citation styles.  Each has different guidelines for how to source information (author, title, year...etc.) should be formatted and punctuated for both in-text citations and for the References or Works Cited pages

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Why Cite Sources?

Avoid Plagiarizing

You must cite any direct quotation, summary, or paraphrase of any idea or fact from your research. Citing sources is giving credit to the original author and publication where you found the information. Not citing sources is plagiarism and you may be subject to academic discipline.

Lend Authority to Your Paper:

By referencing the work of scholars and other professionals, you demonstrate that your own research is based on solid, reliable information and that you are capable of critical thinking by being able to synthesize that research into your own.

Provide a Path: 

By citing sources, you provide the information readers of your paper need in order to locate the same sources that you did.

Acknowledge Other's Work: 

Part of your research is built upon the research of other people. In the scholarship tradition in the United States, it is considered respectful and fair to give them credit for their hard work (just as you might hope someone would give you credit if they were quoting your own work!)

APA Citation Video Tutorial

Source: "Introduction to Citation Styles: APA 7th ed." by CSUDH Library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn the basic conventions of citing sources in-text and in a reference list using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7th edition.
MLA Citations Video Tutorial

Source: "MLA Citations: Understanding Containers" by sc4library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn how to use containers when citing resources in MLA style.

Citing Journal Articles - APA

Journal Article - from a Database which includes a DOI Number

*reminder that titles of articles are written in sentence case: (proper nouns, first word of title and subtitle are capitalized; all other words lower case)

 

One Author - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Citation examples
Example

Bailey, N.W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Bailey, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

(Bailey, 2012, p. 562)

Two to Twenty Authors - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Citation example
Example

Pempek, T.A., Yermolayeva, Y.A., & Calvert, S.L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3(2)227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010t

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
In-text citation examples
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)

21 or More Authors

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

Citation examples
Example

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/fg6rf9

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Kalnay et al., 1996)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Kalnay et al., 1996, p. 439)

Journal Article - from a Database with no DOI Number

One Author - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. 

Citation examples
Example

Carlisle, D. (2012). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012, p. 18)

Two to Twenty Authors - no DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including twenty authors. When a source has twenty-one or more authors, include the first twenty authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the library database for journal articles without a DOI as these works are widely available.

Citation example
Example

Bogan, E., & Paun, E. (2011). The assimilation of immigrants into the British labor market. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3(2), 272. 

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
In-text citation examples
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)

21 or More Authors - no DOI

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

Citation example
Example

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Kalnay et al., 1996)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Kalnay et al., 1996, p. 439)

Journal Article - from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number if given). URL

Citation examples
Example

Flachs, A. (2010). Food for thought: The social impact of community gardens in the Greater Cleveland Area. Electronic Green Journal, 1(30). https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6bh7j4z4

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

(Flachs, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Flachs, 2010, Conclusion section, para. 3)

Note: In this example, there were no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, so you can cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from. 

Journal Article - in Print

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article in sentence case: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number.

Citation Examples
Example

Jungers, W.L. (2010). Biomechanics: Barefoot running strikes back. Nature, 463(2), 433-434.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Jungers, 2010)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page number)

Example: (Jungers, 2010, p. 433)

APA Citation Style (7th Edition)

APA Citation Style

APA (American Psychological Association) Style is used in Social Science disciplines, like Psychology and Education. Always consult your assignment or ask your instructor for the correct citation style to use

Source: "Introduction to Citation Styles: APA 7th ed." by CSUDH Library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn the basic conventions of citing sources in-text and in a reference list using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7th edition.

NoodleTools Citation Workshop

NoodleTools Citation Workshop

Scholarship is a Conversation!
This hands-on workshop will help you understand why and how to give credit in your academic work and beyond.

Workshop focus:
  • Understanding why and when to cite other works
  • Integrating and citing sources material
  • Using NoodleTools citation maker
Please create your NoodleTools account before attending the workshop. Instructions are below.

Schedule:  

All Citation Workshops Meet in Person in HL213

  • Week 4: in person Wednesday, July 24 at 11am
  • Week 5: in person Thursday, August 1 at 11am

See below for a link to our online asynchronous tutorial in Canvas. 

To Register:
  • Open the REGISTRATION LINK below to select the workshop date you would like.
  • We will send you registration confirmation. 
  • Please be sure to set up your NoodleTools Account or check your login to your existing account prior to the workshop. (Instructions are below.)
  • You may drop in without registering space permitting.
Set up your NoodleTools account
Asynchronous Citations & NoodleTools Workshops:

Can't attend a citation workshop at the scheduled times?  

You can take an online version of the workshop through our online NoodleTools Citation Tutorial in Canvas or the NoodleTools How-To Guide!