BIOL 100: Survey of Biology

This guide is for students in Kanchan Bodas' sections of Biology 100. Use this guide for your biology research projects.

Why Cite Sources?

Why Cite Sources?

Avoid Plagiarizing: You must cite any direct quotation, summary, or paraphrase of any idea or fact from your research. Citing sources is giving credit to the original author and publication where you found the information. Not citing sources is plagiarism and you may be subject to academic discipline.

Lend Authority to Your Paper: By referencing the work of scholars and other professionals, you demonstrate that your own research is based on solid, reliable information and that you are capable of critical thinking by being able to synthesize that research into your own.

Provide a Path: By citing sources, you provide the information readers of your paper need in order to locate the same sources that you did.

Acknowledge Other's Work: Part of your research is built upon the research of other people. In the scholarship tradition in the United States, it is considered respectful and fair to give them credit for their hard work (just as you might hope someone would give you credit if they were quoting your own work!)

APA

APA Citation Style

APA (American Psychological Association) Style is used in Social Science disciplines, like Psychology and Education. Always consult your assignment or ask your instructor for the correct citation style to use

Source: "Introduction to Citation Styles: APA 7th ed." by CSUDH Library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn the basic conventions of citing sources in-text and in a reference list using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7th edition.

Citing Articles from Library Databases- APA

One Author - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Example

Bailey, N.W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Bailey, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

(Bailey, 2012, p. 562)

One Author - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. 

Example

Carlisle, D. (2012). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012, p. 18)

Two to Twenty Authors - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Example

Pempek, T.A., Yermolayeva, Y.A., & Calvert, S.L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3(2)227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010t

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"

Two to Twenty Authors - no DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including twenty authors. When a source has twenty-one or more authors, include the first twenty authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the library database for journal articles without a DOI as these works are widely available.

Example

Bogan, E., & Paun, E. (2011). The assimilation of immigrants into the British labor market. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3(2), 272. 

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
When You Have 21 or More Authors

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

Example

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/fg6rf9

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016, p. 103)

Automatic Citation Generator

NoodleTools Citation Generator

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Quick Guide - APA

More on APA