International Business

For students in BUS 181 & Danish exchange students

Quick Guide - APA

Quick Guide - APA Citation Style

Automatic Citation Generator


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Assess your Information Sources with SIFT

SIFT Evaluation Tool

Use the technique of Lateral Reading to Validate Claims and Sources

(click on image to enlarge)

SIFT: Stop. Investigate. Find a better Source. Trace back to Source

This work is licensed under a creative commons attribution license.

Step 1: Stop

Ask yourself whether you know and trust the author, publisher, publication, or website.

  • If you don’t, use the other fact-checking moves that follow, to get a better sense of what you’re looking at.
  • In other words, don’t read, share, or use the source in your research until you know what it is, and you can verify it is reliable.
Step 2: Investigate the Source

When investigating a source, fact-checkers read “laterally” across many websites, rather than digging deep (reading “vertically”) into the one source they are evaluating.

  • Leave that source and see what others have said about the source.
  • Piece together different bits of information from across the web to get a better picture of the source you’re investigating.
Step 3: If needed, find better or more appropriate coverage.

What if the source you find is low-quality, or you can’t determine if it is reliable or not?

  • You want to know if it is true or false. You want to know if it represents a consensus viewpoint, or if it is the subject of much disagreement.
  • Your best strategy in this case might actually be to find a better source altogether, to look for other coverage that includes trusted reporting or analysis on that same claim. 
Step 4: Track the source back to the original.

What if you feel uncertain about the "full story" of a fact or claim, or you suspect someone might want to mislead you (as when controversial issues are presented)?

  • Trace the claim, quote, or media back to the source, so you can see it in its original context and get a sense of whether the version you saw was accurately presented.

Modified from Mike Caulfield's SIFT (Four Moves), which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

SIFT infographic-CCby

Graphic created by Suzanne Sannwald based on Mike Caulfield's work on SIFT. Creative Commons Attribution License.

Cite your Sources

Cite your Sources

What is a Citation?
  • A short description of the source for your information.
  • Contains information on who wrote it, what it is (title), and where you found it (book or other resource title).
  • Used to give credit to the sources you use in your writing.
  • Provides information to help someone find the source.
  • Annotated Bibliographies include a paragraph describing each article or book in the reference list.
  • Usually uses either APA or MLA style.
Why Cite? 

When you present research, you participate in an informed conversation.

You cite your sources, in order to:

  • Give credit to others for their ideas, data, and words.
  • Demonstrate due diligence and give weight to your analysis.
  • Leave a research path others can follow.

Citation Resources

Citation Guide

Find much more on the Holman Library Citation guide: