Skip to Main Content

HIST 214 Pacific Northwest History (Norberg): Evaluate Sources

Evaluate: Do Your Sources Pass the C.R.A.P. Test?


Evaluate ALL Your Sources

Do they pass the CRAP Test?
If not, find better sources!

Questions/Criteria to ask about your source:

Write down answers/evidence in your source:


  • When was the source published or updated?
  • Is currency of info important for your topic? (Does info change rapidly or frequently?)
  • Is older, historical info important for your topic?



  • Where do the facts or info come from?
  • Is content of the resource primarily opinion? Is  it balanced?
  • Can you find citations or lists of references?
  • Can you verify any of the info in another source?
  • Does the source go through some type of review process before it is published?





  • Is the info from an authoritative source?
  • What is considered “authoritative” for your topic?
  • Can you determine the author’s or organization’s qualifications, credentials, expertise, affiliations, experience?



  • Why is this info being published?

to inform?

to teach?

to sell?

to entertain?

to persuade?


  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Can you determine if the publisher/sponsor has political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?
  • For web sources, what is the domain?
    (.edu, .gov, .com, .org, .net, other?)


Try it!

What criteria would you use to determine if this is a "good" website?