Islam and Muslim Americans


Islamophobia refers to irrational, unjustified, or excessive fear or hatred of Islam and of Muslims. Its more obvious manifestations include negative attitudes such as intolerance and prejudice; negative actions such as discrimination, harassment, and social and economic exclusion; verbal and physical abuse and hate crimes against Muslims and their places of worship; and the vilification of Islam as a religion and a way of life. It may also refer to the negative stereotyping of Muslims as extremist, barbaric, treacherous, violent, uncivilized, and sexist and to assumptions about the inferiority of Islamic culture and values. 

-From the Encyclopedia of Race and Racism (Citation below)

Resources on Islamophobia


Academic Encyclopedias
Journalism and Popular Sources
Scholarly Sources

Source Citation for Quote

Source citation:

Halstead, J. Mark. "Islamophobia." Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, edited by Patrick L. Mason, 2nd ed., vol. 2, Macmillan Reference USA, 2013, pp. 492-495. Gale eBooks, Accessed 9 Mar. 2021.

Books on Islamophobia