Basic Format - PARAPHRASING:
(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication)
Basic Format - DIRECT QUOTATIONS
(Author's Last Name, Date of Publication, p. #)
Chocolate is often viewed as a junk food, but its value as unique nutritional source should not be underestimated. In fact, a survey of early South Pole explorer diaries shows that larger chocolate rations “may have been a deciding factor between Roald Amundsen’s successful trek to the South Pole and the fatal attempt by Robert Scott” (West, 2009, p. 110). The fact that chocolate was not seen as a frivolity, but deemed important enough staple to pack on these grueling expeditions is a testament to its value in the human diet. Also, there is the more modern comparison that M&M’s chocolate candies were chosen for military expeditions in World War II because they were an energy boosting snack that also did not easily melt (Mirrer, 2018).
(Last Name, year).
(Last Name & Last Name, year).
Three or more Authors
(Last Name, et al., year).
Strong, et al. (1999) compared marital fidelity...
(“Shortened Title,” year).
...incidence of drought increased 10% (“Weather Patterns,” 2009).
[full title = “Weather patterns wreak havoc for Oklahoma farmers”]
(Last Name, n.d.).
...Orissi dance has undergone a major revival since the 1950s (Gupta, n.d.)
With Page Number
(Last Name, year, p. #).
With No Page Number
(Last Name, year, name of section heading or para. #).
[if possible include heading names or paragraph numbers to help readers locate the passage]
Secondary Source: when your source quotes from another, secondary source
(Secondary Source, year, as cited in Your Source, year, p. #).
Follow guidelines for citing source type and add letters (a, b, c...etc.) after date
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a). Measles. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/measles
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b). Mumps. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/diseases/mumps
World Health Organization. (n.d.-a). Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants. https://www.who.int/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants
World Health Organization. (n.d.-b). https://www.who.int/campaigns/vaccine-equity
(Author, Year, letter)
Example: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2023b)
Example: (World Health Organization, n.d.-a)
(Author, Year, letter, page number or para.)
Example: (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2023b, para. 5)
Example: (World Health Organization, n.d-a, section 4, para. 2)
from APA Manual Seventh Edition 8.19, 9.47