SOC 202 The Sociology of Food

Citing Sources

NoodleTools Citation Generator
NoodleTools Tutorials:

Source: "Citations: The How and Why of Citing Sources" by Holman Library is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Learn how to confidently create citations for papers, presentations, and videos.

To find video segments in the "Contents" area: Click the carrot or the arrow at the bottom of the video player
Example:

To find video segments, in the Contents area, click the carrot or the arrow at the bottom of the video player

SEGMENTS INCLUDE:

  • Locate the Citations Guide
  • Citation Basics (quick overview)
  • Why Cite Sources & How to Avoid Plagiarism
  • Create Citations: Template Method
  • Create Citations: Citation Generator Method (“NoodleTools”)
  • Example APA/MLA Paper Formatting
  • More Citation Info (other citation styles, annotated bibliographies, incorporating sources, verbal citations)
  • How to Get Help

click image to enlarge:

  1. Place in-text citations in the body of the paper to acknowledge the source of your information.  This is meant to be a shortened version of the full citation that appears on the final page of your paper.
  2. Place full citations for all your sources on the last page entitled References or Works Cited (different citation styles require different titles).  Full citations are meant to provide readers with enough information so that they can locate the source themselves.
  3. APA or MLA are citation styles.  Each has different guidelines for how source information (author, title, year...etc.) should be formatted and punctuated for both in-text citations and for the References or Works Cited pages

Why Cite Sources?

Avoid Plagiarizing: You must cite any direct quotation, summary, or paraphrase of any idea or fact from your research. Citing sources is giving credit to the original author and publication where you found the information. Not citing sources is plagiarism and you may be subject to academic discipline.

Lend Authority to Your Paper: By referencing the work of scholars and other professionals, you demonstrate that your own research is based on solid, reliable information and that you are capable of critical thinking by being able to synthesize that research into your own.

Provide a Path: By citing sources, you provide the information readers of your paper need in order to locate the same sources that you did.

Acknowledge Other's Work: Part of your research is built upon the research of other people. In the scholarship tradition in the United States, it is considered respectful and fair to give them credit for their hard work (just as you might hope someone would give you credit if they were quoting your own work!)

 

Quick video tutorial on the basics of APA citations:

Source: "Introduction to Citation Styles: APA 7th ed." by CSUDH Library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn the basic conventions of citing sources in-text and in a reference list using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7th edition.

 

Quick video on the basics of MLA citations:

Source: "MLA Citations: Understanding Containers" by sc4library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn how to use containers when citing resources in MLA style.

Journal Articles from Library Database - APA

One Author - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Example

Bailey, N.W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Bailey, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

(Bailey, 2012, p. 562)

One Author - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. 

Example

Carlisle, D. (2012). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012, p. 18)

Two to Twenty Authors - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Example

Pempek, T.A., Yermolayeva, Y.A., & Calvert, S.L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3(2)227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010t

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"

Two to Twenty Authors - no DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including twenty authors. When a source has twenty-one or more authors, include the first twenty authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the library database for journal articles without a DOI as these works are widely available.

Example

Bogan, E., & Paun, E. (2011). The assimilation of immigrants into the British labor market. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3(2), 272. 

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
When You Have 21 or More Authors

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

Example

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/fg6rf9

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016, p. 103)

Citing Images in APA Style

Creating Citations for Images

Did you know you are required to cite images in papers and presentations?

In the body of the paper or on a slide:

  • Above the image:
    • Include the bolded word Figure and the number of the figure (you would need to number any subsequent figures sequentially in your paper)
    • Include the title of the image in title-case italics
  • Below the image:
    • Include this word in italics: Note.
    • Include citation information in this format (note that this is a different format than the formal APA citation that you include on the References page):
      • for webpages:
        • Title of Webpage in Italics and Title Case, by A. Author and B. Author, year, Site Name (URL). Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder
      • for articles:
        • “Title of Article in Title Case” by A. Author and B. Author, year, Title of Periodical, Volume(Issue), p. xx (DOI or URL). Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.
Example:

Figure 1

More Farmers in Peru Have Stopped Planting Coca, Opting for Cacao and Coffee

More Farmers in Peru Have Stopped Planting Coca, Opting for Cacao and Coffee

Note. From Peruvian Prosperity: From Coca Farmer to Chocolate Maker, by N. Guitierrez, 2016, USAID (https://www.usaid.gov/results-data/success-stories/coca-farmer-chocolate-maker). Copyright 2016 by USAID.

 

On the References page:
  • include the entire formal APA citation for the source
    Example:

    USAID. (2016, September). Peruvian prosperity: From coca farmer to chocolate maker. https://www.usaid.gov/results-data/success-stories/coca-farmer-chocolate-maker

More Citation Help

ASA citation style

ASA (American Sociological Association) style:

Citation: A (Very) Brief Introduction