Physics 230: Organic Solar Cells

AIP (American Institute of Physics) Citation Style

 AIP - American Institute of Physics - Style Guide 

Sample citations are from Charles Lipson, Cite Right: A Quick Guide to Citatation Styles - MLA, APA, Chicago, the Sciences, Professions, and More (U. Chicago, Chicago, 2003), with the exception of in-text citations, which are from the AIP Style Manual, 4th ed. 

Physics citations generally follow the rules of the American Institute of Physics:

  • In-text Citations and Reference Lists are numbered in order, either with brackets [1] or superscript. Use one format for both your in-text citations and reference list. 

  • Example of references cited in-text from AIP Style Manual 4th ed.:

       As pointed out by Bray,6 these calculations are in agreement with other experimental values. 7, 8

  • References in AIP are minimal. Article titles are always omitted from the reference and journal titles are abbreviated.

  • Order references as follows: Authors' names as they appear on the title page of the work (M. Shocket and S. Nagel), abbreviated journals title, boldface number of the journal volume, first page number of the articles, and the year in parentheses. 

Journal article - print [1]O. Budriga and V. Florescu, Euro. Phys. J D 41, 205 (2007)
Journal article - online

[2]Tucson Park and J.d. Thompson, New J. Phys. 11, 055062 (2009). <>

(this is an online-only journal and the article is assigned a number, rather than a page number. DOI may be included after the URL. 


[3]National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Physics Laboratory, Physical Reference Data. <>.

Book - one author, multiple editions [4] A.F.J. Levi, Applied Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006).
Chapter in book [5]Heinz Georg Schuster, in Collective Dynamics of Nonlinear and Disordered Systems, edited by G. Radons, W. Just, and P. Haussier (Springer, Berlin, 2005).


Why Cite?

When you present research, you participate in an informed conversation.

You cite your sources, in order to:

  • Give credit to others for their ideas, data, and words.

  • Give weight to your analysis or opinion. Building on the work of others adds credibility to your work.

  • Leave a path your audience can follow.

Be sure to cite your sources in your papers, lab reports, and presentations!

Academic and professional disciplines use different citation formats.

For this class, you will use AIP, American Institue of Physics, style.