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POLS 202: Introduction to American Government & Politics (Nelson): Cite Sources

Citing Sources

NoodleTools Citation Generator
NoodleTools Tutorials:

Source: "Citations: The How and Why of Citing Sources" by Holman Library is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Learn how to confidently create citations for papers, presentations, and videos.

To find video segments in the "Contents" area: Click the carrot or the arrow at the bottom of the video player
Example:

To find video segments, in the Contents area, click the carrot or the arrow at the bottom of the video player

SEGMENTS INCLUDE:

  • Locate the Citations Guide
  • Citation Basics (quick overview)
  • Why Cite Sources & How to Avoid Plagiarism
  • Create Citations: Template Method
  • Create Citations: Citation Generator Method (“NoodleTools”)
  • Example APA/MLA Paper Formatting
  • More Citation Info (other citation styles, annotated bibliographies, incorporating sources, verbal citations)
  • How to Get Help

click image to enlarge:

  1. Place in-text citations in the body of the paper to acknowledge the source of your information.  This is meant to be a shortened version of the full citation that appears on the final page of your paper.
  2. Place full citations for all your sources on the last page entitled References or Works Cited (different citation styles require different titles).  Full citations are meant to provide readers with enough information so that they can locate the source themselves.
  3. APA or MLA are citation styles.  Each has different guidelines for how source information (author, title, year...etc.) should be formatted and punctuated for both in-text citations and for the References or Works Cited pages

Why Cite Sources?

Avoid Plagiarizing: You must cite any direct quotation, summary, or paraphrase of any idea or fact from your research. Citing sources is giving credit to the original author and publication where you found the information. Not citing sources is plagiarism and you may be subject to academic discipline.

Lend Authority to Your Paper: By referencing the work of scholars and other professionals, you demonstrate that your own research is based on solid, reliable information and that you are capable of critical thinking by being able to synthesize that research into your own.

Provide a Path: By citing sources, you provide the information readers of your paper need in order to locate the same sources that you did.

Acknowledge Other's Work: Part of your research is built upon the research of other people. In the scholarship tradition in the United States, it is considered respectful and fair to give them credit for their hard work (just as you might hope someone would give you credit if they were quoting your own work!)

 

Quick video tutorial on the basics of APA citations:

Source: "Introduction to Citation Styles: APA 7th ed." by CSUDH Library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn the basic conventions of citing sources in-text and in a reference list using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7th edition.

 

Quick video on the basics of MLA citations:

Source: "MLA Citations: Understanding Containers" by sc4library, is licensed under a Standard YouTube License.

Learn how to use containers when citing resources in MLA style.

APA Citation for SCOTUS Case and Majority Opinion

Journal Articles from Library Database - APA

One Author - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Example

Bailey, N.W. (2012). Evolutionary models of extended phenotypes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 27(3), 561-569. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Bailey, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

(Bailey, 2012, p. 562)

One Author - No DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the database or the URL of the journal home page for online articles without a DOI. 

Example

Carlisle, D. (2012). In the line of fire. Nursing Standard, 26(39), 18-19. 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Carlisle, 2012, p. 18)

Two to Twenty Authors - with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number. DOI formatted as a hyperlink

Note: Separate the authors' names by putting a comma between them. For the final author listed add an ampersand (&) after the comma and before the final author's last name.

Example

Pempek, T.A., Yermolayeva, Y.A., & Calvert, S.L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3(2)227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010t

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"

Two to Twenty Authors - no DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given., & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of article: Subtitle if any. Name of Journal, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given. 

Note: In the reference list invert all authors' names; give last names and initials for only up to and including twenty authors. When a source has twenty-one or more authors, include the first twenty authors’ names, then three ellipses (…), and add the last author’s name. 

Note: The APA Manual (7th ed.) recommends not including the library database for journal articles without a DOI as these works are widely available.

Example

Bogan, E., & Paun, E. (2011). The assimilation of immigrants into the British labor market. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3(2), 272. 

In-Text See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"
In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
When You Have 21 or More Authors

List the first nineteen authors followed by three spaced ellipse points (. . .) , and then the last author's name.

Example

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Sha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropepelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., ... Joesph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. https://doi.org/fg6rf9

In-Text Paraphrase

(First author's last name et al., Year)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016)

In-Text Quote

(First author's last name et al., Year, p. Page number quote is from)

Example: (Nilsson et al., 2016, p. 103)

Books & eBooks - APA

One Author (Print or eBook from Library Database)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

For eBooks, the database is not required. 

Example

Watson, J. (2012). Human caring science: A theory of nursing (2nd ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Watson, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Watson, 2012, p. 70)

Two to Twenty Authors (Print or eBook from Library Database)

Last Name of First Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given, & Last Name of Second Author, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Note:

Authors' names are separated by commas. Put a comma and an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author cited.

Must include ALL names in the reference list for publications with up to 20 authors.

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

For library eBooks, the database is not required.

Example

Case, L. P., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raash, M. F. (2011). Canine and feline nutrition: A resource for companion animal professionals (3rd ed.). Mosby.

In-text

See Chart Below "In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors"

Group or Corporate Author

Name of Corporate Author. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

If the Corporate Author is also the publisher of the book, omit the Publisher Name.

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

Example

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).

In-Text 

See Chart Below "In-Text Citation for Group of Corporate Authors"

Editor(s), but no Author(s)

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher Name often shortened. 

Note:

Place of publication is not required when using APA 7th edition.

For a book with more than one editor, follow name conventions for a Book with Two to Twenty Authors

Example

Leitch, M.G. (Ed.). (2019). A new companion to Malory. D.S. Brewer.

 

In-Text Paraphrase

(Editor's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Leitch, 2019)

In-Text Quote

(Editor's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Leitch, 2019, p. 55)

Chapters, Short Stories, Essays, or Articles from a Book (Anthology or Collection)

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter, article, essay or short story. In Editor's First Initial. Second Initial if Given. Editor's Last Name (Ed.), Title of book (edition if given and is not first edition, pp. first page number-last page number). Publisher Name often shortened.

Note:

If you have more than one editor list their name(s) after the first editor listed in the book, giving their initials and last name. Put an ampersand (&) before the last editor's name.

When you have one editor the short form (Ed.) is used after the editor's name. If you have more than one editor use (Eds.) instead.

Example

Stockert, P.A. & Taylor, C. (2014). Sleep. In P.A. Potter, A.G. Perry, J.C. Ross-Kerr & M.J. Wood (Eds.), Canadian fundamentals of nursing (5th Cdn. ed., pp. 993-1016). Elsevier.

Note: If there is no editor given you may leave out that part of the citation.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year) 

Example (2 authors): (Stockert & Taylor, 2014)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number) 

Example (2 authors): (Stockert & Taylor, 2014, p. 998)

eBook from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if given (edition if given and is not first edition). Publisher. URL

Example (one author)

Nightingale, F. (1860). Notes on nursing: What it is, and what it is not. Harrison and Sons. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/ 17366/17366-h/17366-h.htm

In-Text Paraphrase

(Author's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nightingale, 1860)

In-Text Quote

(Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number)

Example: (Nightingale, 1860, p. 157)

In-Text Citation For Two or More Authors/Editors
Number of Authors/Editors First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Two

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011)

(Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57) (Case & Daristotle, 2011, p. 57)
Three or more

 

(Case et al.,2011)              

(Case et al., 2011) (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)                 (Case et al., 2011, p. 57)
In-Text Citation For Group or Corporate Authors
Type of Group First Time Paraphrased Second and Subsequent Times Paraphrased First Time Quoting Second and Subsequent Times Quoting
Groups readily identified through abbreviations

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003, p. 5) (NIMH, 2003, p. 5)
Groups with no abbreviations (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2) (University of Pittsburgh, 2005, p. 2)

Streaming Video - APA

From a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name Known

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted/uploaded the video is credited as the author.

Example

Nye, B. [TheRealBillNye]. (2009, April 8). Bill Nye the science guy on energy [Video]. YouTube. http://youtu.be/0ASLLiuejAo

In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)

Example: (Nye, 2009)

In-Text Quote

(Creator's Last Name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Nye, 2009, 2:12)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

From a Website (YouTube, Vimeo, etc.) - Poster's Name Unknown

User name that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Website. url

Note: According to APA, for citing purposes the person who posted the video is credited as the author.

Example

All Aces Media. (2012, January 19). Often awesome the series [Video]. Vimeo. http://vimeo.com/35311255

In-Text Paraphrase

(User name, Year)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012)

In-Text Quote

(User name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (All Aces Media, 2012, 3:17)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

From a Subscription Service or Library Collection (Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Hulu, Kanopy, etc.)

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year of Publication). Title of Movie [Film]. Production Company. 

Note: Only specify how you watched a film (on DVD, streaming, etc.) when it is important to indicate a specific version. Put this information in in the square brackets following the word "Film" and a semicolon. If you have more than one director use (Directors) instead and separate their names with commas, adding an ampersand (&) before the final name.  If the director is unknown, credit someone in a similar role (producer/writer) and put their job title in round brackets after their name. 

Example

Gitlitz, R. (Director). (2017). The story of Diana [Film]. ABC Entertainment.

In-Text Paraphrase

(Director Last name, Year)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017)

In-Text Quote

(Director Last name, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Gitlitz, 2017, 51:45)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.

Television Series Episode

Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year the episode was originally aired, Month Day if known). Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive Producer), Television series nameProduction Company

Note: Include the writer and director for the episode and put their job title in round brackets after their name.  If one person did both jobs use (Writer & Director).

Cite the URL for the log-in page instead of the URL for the actual movie. Omit the URL if the TV episode was viewed on cable television rather than online.

Example Oakley, B. K. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (2020, January 1). The Key (Season 6, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J. L. Brooks, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), Vikings. History. 
In-Text Paraphrase

(Writer & Director Last Names, Year)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020)

In-Text Quote

 (Writer & Director Last Names, Year, Time Stamp)

Example: (Oakley & Lynch, 2020, 17:53)

Note: Because videos typically do not have page numbers, paragraph numbers or section headings, instead provide a time stamp for the beginning of the quotation.